Cyber components in a CPS application often include
algorithms that react to sensor data by issuing control
signals via actuators to the physical components of the CPS.
Such closed-loop feedback systems are the domain of the classic field
of control theory, which studies stability and dynamics
of such interactions. CPS, however, requires extending control
theory to embrace the dynamics of software and networks,
which can have profound effects on stability and dynamics
of the physical subsystems. Phenomena that affect dynamics
include timing jitter in communications and computation,
packet losses in networks, and resource contention.