Modularity and Composability
Many cyber-physical systems are actually
systems of systems, compositions of diverse
subsystems, typically developed by diverse teams,
often from different organizations.
Modularity is the problem of designing
subsystems (modules) with well-defined interfaces that
can be used in a variety of contexts.
Composability is the ability to combine modules.
A related concern is compositionality,
which refers to the ability to understand
a composite system by interstanding its
components and how they are combined.