Physical Security

Electronic physical security systems are cyber-physical systems. For example, card access control systems, via a database records or a data store on a smart access card, link a card holder's access privilege information with a specific ID card, so that presentation of the ID card at a door's card reader results in granting or denying access through the door based on the card holder's access privileges, via electrical door lock control. Some access control systems utilize biometric readers that scan, for example, an eye's iris, a hand's vein pattern, a fingerprint, or a face. Networked video surveillance cameras run video analytics software to detect motion and recognize objects and people.

In retail stores, video surveillance systems interface with Point-of-Sale systems, to help detect fraud at the cash register. Retail stores also use video analytics to monitor, via the presence and activity of people at merchandise displays, the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.

Video surveillance software at airports augments human video surveillance. For example, when video analytics detects that an individual has left a box or piece of luggage behind, it backtracks to locate that individual and present likely images of the individual to the video monitoring staff, who select the correct images from a set of likely matches. The video surveillance system further refines its "definition" of that individual and the process continues using a combination of video analytics and human cognition, to check live and recorded video for nearby areas to locate the person or their point of departure from the airport, as well as point of arrival and paths taken throughout the airport facility. Determining the individual's location does not require facial recognition or other identification.