Simulation is the process of validating a design by
imitating its behavior for a given set of inputs.
Particular CPS challenges include
- heterogeneous simulation: cosimulation of diverse physical and cyber subsystems;
- multiresolution simulation: cosimulating subsystems expressed at different levels of abstraction or with different time scales and precisions;
- models of time: distributed cyber-physical systems cannot precisely share a single measurement of time, and discrepancies in their measurements can lead to unexpected artifacts, so simulators need to accurately models these discrepancies.
- hardware in the loop simulation: This is where a subsystem simulation interacts in real time with hardware realizing either a physical or a cyber susbsystem.