Multi Carrier Digital Communications:

Theory and Applications of OFDM



Multi-Carrier Digital Communications: Theory and Applications of OFDM



Multi-carrier modulation, in particular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communications applications over the past several years. Although OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a diversity of important systems, the theory, algorithms, and implementation techniques remain subjects of current interest. This is clear from the high volume of papers appearing in technical journals and conferences.


        Springer NewYork, 2004. 

  ISBN: (HB) 0-387-22575-7 (alk.paper)/

             (eBook) 0-38722576-5.



Dr. Ahmad RS Bahai | Dr. Burton R. Saltzberg | Dr. Mustafa Ergen

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Multi-Carrier Digital Communications Theory and Applications of OFDM, Second Edition Multi-carrier modulation, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) particularly, has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communications applications over the past several years. OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a variety of important systems and its implementation techniques continue to evolve rapidly.


This book is a valuable summary of the technology, providing an understanding of new advances as well as the present core technology. A unified presentation of OFDM performance and implementation over a wide variety of channels, including both wireline and wireless systems, is made. This will prove valuable both to developers of such systems and to researchers and graduate students involved in analysis of digital communications. In the interest of brevity, the authors have minimized treatment of more general communication issues. There exist many excellent texts on communication theory and technology. Only brief summaries of topics not specific to multi-carrier modulation are presented in this book where essential. As a background, it is assumed that the reader has a clear knowledge of basic fundamentals of digital communications.


Highlights of the Second Edition During the past few years since the publication of the first edition of this text, the technology and application of OFDM have continued their rapid pace of advancement. As a result, it became clear that a new edition of the text would be highly desirable. The new edition provides the opportunity to make those corrections and clarifications whose need became apparent from continued discussions with many readers. However, the main purpose is to introduce new topics that have come to the forefront during the past few years, and to amplify the treatment of other subject matter.


Because of the particularly rapid development of wireless systems employing OFDM, the authors introduced a section early in the text on wireless channel fundamentals. They have extended and modified their analysis of the effects of clipping, including new simulation results. A section of channel estimation has been added to the chapter on equalization.


The chapter on local area networks has been greatly expanded to include the latest technology and applications.


Three totally new chapters are added, on OFDM multiple access technology, on ultra wideband technology, and on WiMAX (IEEE 802.16).


Organization of This Book   The authors begin with a historical overview of multi-carrier communications, wherein its advantages for transmission over highly dispersive channels have long been recognized, particularly before the development of equalization techniques. They then focus on the bandwidth efficient technology of OFDM, in particular the digital signal processing techniques that have made the modulation format practical. Several chapters describe and analyze the sub-systems of an OFDM implementation, such as clipping, synchronization channel estimation, equalization, and coding. Analysis of performance over channels with various impairments is presented.


The book continues with descriptions of three very important and diverse applications of OFDM that have been standardized and are now being deployed. ADSL provides access to digital services at several Mbps over the ordinary wire-pair connection between customers and the local telephone company central office. Digital broadcasting enables the radio reception of high-quality digitized sound and video. A unique configuration that is enabled by OFDM is the simultaneous transmission of identical signals by geographically dispersed transmitters. And, the new development of wireless LANs for multi-Mbps communications is presented in detail. Each of these successful applications required the development of new fundamental technology. Finally, the book concludes with describing the OFDM based multiple access techniques, ultra wideband technology and WiMAX.      



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Table of Contents:



1 Introduction to Digital Communications
1.1 Background
1.2 Evolution of OFDM

2 System Architecture
2.1 Wireless Channel Fundamentals
2.1.1 Path Loss
2.1.2 Shadowing
2.1.3 Fading Parameters
2.1.4 Flat Fading
2.1.5 Frequency Selective Fading
2.1.6 Fast fading
2.1.7 Slow fading
2.1.8 Rayleigh Fading
2.1.9 Ricean Fading
2.2 Digital Communication System Fundamentals
2.2.1 Coding
2.2.2 Modulation
2.3 Multi-Carrier System Fundamentals
2.4 DFT
2.5 Partial FFT
2.6 Cyclic Extension
2.7 Channel Estimation
2.8 Modelling of OFDM for Time-Varying Random Channel
2.8.1 Randomly Time-Varying Channels
2.8.2 OFDM in Randomly Time-Varying Channels

3 Performance over Time-Invariant Channels
3.1 Time-Invariant Non-Flat Channel with Colored Noise
3.2 Error Probability
3.3 Bit Allocation
3.4 Bit and Power Allocation Algorithms for Fixed Bit Rate

4 Clipping in Multi-Carrier Systems
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Power Amplifier Non-Linearity
4.3 Error Probability Analysis
4.3.1 System Model
4.3.2 BER Due to Clipping
4.4 Performance in AWGN and Fading
4.5 Bandwidth regrowth

5 Synchronization
5.1 Timing and Frequency Offset in OFDM
5.2 Synchronization & System Architecture
5.3 Timing and Frame Synchronization
5.4 Frequency Offset Estimation
5.5 Phase Noise

 6 Channel Estimation and Equalization
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Channel Estimation
6.2.1 Coherent Detection
6.2.2 Block-Type Pilot Arrangement
6.2.3 Comb-Type Pilot Arrangement
6.2.4 Interpolation Techniques
6.2.5 Non-coherent detection
6.2.6 Performance
6.2.7 Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM
6.3 Equalization
6.3.1 Time Domain Equalization
6.3.2 Equalization in DMT
6.3.3 Delay Parameter
6.3.4 AR Approximation of ARMA Model
6.3.5 Frequency Domain Equalization
6.3.6 Echo Cancellation
6.3.7 Appendix - Joint Innovation Representation of ARMA Models

7 Channel Coding
7.1 Need for Coding
7.2 Block Coding in OFDM
7.3 Convolutional Encoding
7.4 Concatenated Coding
7.5 Trellis Coding in OFDM
7.6 Turbo Coding in OFDM

8.1 Wired Access to High Rate Digital Services
8.2 Properties of the Wire-Pair Channel
8.3 ADSL Systems


9 Wireless LAN Applications
9.1 Introduction
9.1.1 Background
9.1.2 Pros and Cons
9.2 Topology
9.2.1 Independent BSS
9.2.2 Infrastructure BSS
9.2.3 Services
9.3 Architecture
9.4 Medium Access Control
9.4.1 DCF Access
9.4.2 Markov Model of DCF
9.4.3 PCF
9.5 Management
9.5.1 Synchronization
9.5.2 Scanning
9.5.3 Power Management
9.5.4 Security
9.6 IEEE 802.11 and 802.11b Physical Layer
9.6.1 Spread Spectrum
9.6.2 FHSS Physical Layer
9.6.3 DSSS Physical Layer
9.6.4 IR Physical Layer
9.6.5 HR/DSSS Physical Layer
9.6.6 RF Interference
9.7 IEEE 802.11a Physical Layer
9.7.1 OFDM Architecture
9.7.2 Transmitter
9.7.3 Receiver
9.7.4 Degradation Factors
9.8 Performance of 802.11a Transceivers
9.8.1 Data Rate
9.8.2 Phase Noise
9.8.3 Channel Estimation
9.8.4 Frequency Offset
9.8.5 IQ Imbalance
9.8.6 Quantization and Clipping Error
9.8.7 Power Amplifier Nonlinearity
9.8.8 Hard or Soft Decision Decoding
9.8.9 Co-channel Interference
9.8.10 Narrowband Interference
9.8.11 UWB Interference
9.8.12 Performance of 64QAM
9.9 Rate Adaptation
9.10 Zero IF Technology
9.11 IEEE 802.11e MAC Protocol
9.11.1 MAC services
9.11.2 MAC architecture
9.11.3 Hybrid coordination function (HCF)
9.11.4 HCF controlled channel access
9.11.5 Admission Control
9.11.6 Block Acknowledgement
9.11.7 Multi-rate support
9.11.8 Direct Link Protocol
9.12.1 Protocol Architecture
9.12.2 Data Link Control
9.12.3 Convergence Layer
9.12.4 HIPERLAN/2 vs 802.11a
9.14 Overview of IEEE 802.11 Standards
9.14.1 IEEE 802.11c - Bridge Operation Procedures
9.14.2 IEEE 802.11d - Global Harmonization
9.14.3 IEEE 802.11f - Inter Access Point Protocol
9.14.4 IEEE 802.11g - Higher Rate Extensions in the 2.4GHz Band
9.14.5 IEEE 802.11h - Spectrum Managed 802.11a
9.14.6 IEEE 802.11i - MAC Enhancements for Enhanced Security
9.14.7 IEEE 802.1x - Port Based Network Access Control
9.14.8 IEEE 802.1p - QoS on the MAC Level


10 Digital Broadcasting
10.1 Broadcasting of Digital Audio Signals
10.2 Signal Format

10.3 Other Digital Broadcasting Systems
10.3.1 DAB in the U.S.A
10.4 Digital Video Broadcasting

11 OFDM based Multiple Access Techniques
11.1 Introduction
11.4 Multi Carrier CDMA (OFDM-CDMA)
11.5 OFDMA
11.5.1 OFDMA Architecture
11.5.2 Resource Allocation Regarding QoS
11.5.3 Resource Allocation Regarding Capacity
11.6 Flash-OFDM

12 Ultra WideBand Technologies
12.1 Impulse Radio
12.2 Multiband Approach
12.3 Multiband OFDM

13 IEEE 802.16 and WiMAX
13.1 Introduction
13.2 WiMAX
13.3 WirelessMAN OFDM
13.4 802.16 MAC
13.5 Conclusion

14 Future Trends
14.1 Comparison with Single Carrier Modulation
14.2 Mitigation of Clipping Effects
14.3 Overlapped Transforms
14.4 Advances in Implementation

List of Figures
List of Tables